I assume that Turkey's status as a NATO member will be enough to protect it from Russian retaliation, but with Putin in charge, who knows? If the Russians retaliate, will NATO ride to the rescue? If the United States isn't going to help, I'm not sure how motivated NATO will be.
In response, the Turks close the Bosphorus to Russia. In response, any Turkish planes that violates Syrian air space are attacked by the Russians.
I'm not saying that's all going to happen. However, I'm pretty sure that Putin is going to respond with something more than a social media campaign to #BringBackOurMigs.